Литературный час-портрет «Но из бездны виднеется небо…»

“Задача литературы: намекнуть нам, кто мы такие на белом свете, – Вочеловечить. История сама каждому посмотрит в глаза!” (В. Шаламов)

18 июня 1907 года родился Варлам Шаламов — русский писатель, поэт, один из первых, кто  посвятил свое творчество лагерной теме.

Автора одного из наиболее жестоких и беспощадных русских произведений о лагерной сталинской системе Варлама Шаламова часто называют колымским Вергилием. Ему удалось выжить после 20 страшных лет в самом страшном гулаговском краю и написать знаменитые «Колымские рассказы», по сей день будоражащие сознание читателя.

Шаламов, как человек, просидевший в лагерях более 20 лет, досконально знавший быт и нравы воровского мира, разоблачает всю фальшь и мнимое благородство уголовщины.

Читать Шаламова — это большая умственная и эмоциональная работа, требующая от читающего не только сопереживания, но и переосмысления собственной жизни, какого-то нравственного вывода, поступка. «Я пишу для того, чтобы люди знали, что пишутся такие рассказы, и сами решились на какой-либо достойный поступок — не в смысле рассказа, а в чем угодно, в каком-то маленьком плюсе».

Отец Шаламова был священником. Правда, со своим отцом Варлам духовной близости не чувствовал, так как тот был человеком властным, тщеславным, деспотичным. Возможно, поэтому писатель вырос атеистом: просто не хотел иметь ничего общего с отцовской «верой без дел». Он вообще не был религиозен. Его привлекала другая сторона духовной жизни — книги.

Варлам научился читать в возрасте 3 лет и с огромным интересом изучал всё то, что находил в семейной библиотеке. С возрастом литературные предпочтения менялись: он переходил от всевозможных приключений к философским рассуждениям. Будущий писатель уже с юных лет обладал стремлением к справедливости, критическим мышлением и тонким художественным вкусом. Именно под влиянием книг в нём с самого детства сформировались идеалы, которые были близки к народовольческим.

Несмотря на то что современный читатель знает Шаламова как автора лагерной прозы, сам он считал себя в первую очередь поэтом. Стихи он начал писать ещё в детстве. Шаламов всегда носил с собой карандаш и часто записывал стихи на чём придётся: в дело шли обрывки газет, коробки папирос, билеты в театр. Каждый вечер он терпеливо переносил дневные записи в общую тетрадь, никогда не стараясь запомнить пришедшие на ум строки: считал, что всё должно быть записано сиюминутно.

В 1924 году юный Шаламов покинул родной город. В 1926 году поступил на факультет советского права в МГУ. Жажда деятельности переполняла его, Шаламов вел активную студенческую жизнь, участвовал в митингах, дискуссиях, демонстрациях.

Но тут произошло роковое событие, предопределившее всю его последующую судьбу. В 1929 году Шаламов был арестован по обвинению в распространении якобы фальшивого политического завещания Ленина. Это было знаменитое «Письмо съезду». Трехлетнее заключение Шаламов отбывал в одном из лагерей Северного Урала, где зеки строили громадный химкомбинат. В 1932 году, выпущенный на волю, Шаламов возвратился в Москву.

В 1937 году не только литературные, но и жизненные планы писателя были разрушены. Шаламова ждет почти 15 лет жизни на грани умирания в сталинских лагерях. Сначала он был осужден, как бывший заключенный на 5 лет, потом еще на 10 — за антисоветскую агитацию. Свой срок Шаламов получил за то, что назвал эмигранта Ивана Бунина русским классиком.

Писателя направили в самое пекло «архипелага ГУЛАГ» — на Колыму. Там добывали золото для страны десятки тысяч ни в чем не повинных людей. В этом аду Шаламову помогли выжить фельдшерские курсы, которые он окончил в 1945 году, за 6 лет до освобождения.

Эти годы были для писателя самыми тяжёлыми: изнуряющий труд на приисках, крайнее истощение, дизентерия. Долго находиться в лазарете заключённым не позволяли, отправляли обратно на работы, а фактически — на верную смерть.

«Я никогда не был вольным, я был только свободным»

Спас Шаламова знакомый врач — помог устроиться в санчасть, а потом закончить курсы фельдшеров, которые вели репрессированные светила медицины. С 1946 года Шаламов работал в больнице и больше к тяжёлой физической работе не возвращался.

В своих воспоминаниях Варлам Тихонович не раз повторял: «Колыму же я никогда не забуду». А «Синяя тетрадь», сделавшая его знаменитым, родилась в Оймяконе.

Так вот и хожу — на вершок от смерти.

Жизнь свою ношу в синеньком конверте.

То письмо давно, с осени, готово.

В нём всегда одно маленькое слово.

Может, потому и не умираю,

Что тому письму адреса не знаю.

«Я работал фельдшером близ Оймякона в Куйдусуне, на полюсе холода, и писал день и ночь на самодельных тетрадях».

Шаламов провёл в лагерях почти четверть жизни и вышел на свободу только в 1951-м, досрочно. Длительное время выехать с Колымы Шаламов не мог. Он работал фельдшером в маленьком якутском поселке.

Главным автором эпохи Шаламов считал Бориса Пастернака и именно ему прислал из Якутии, где жил какое-то время после освобождения, две рукописные книжки своих стихов. Пастернак их высоко оценил. О жизни писателя в лагере узнаем и через его письма к Пастернаку. Однообразный пейзаж: тайга, снега, мороз, лагерные бараки, вышки с часовыми… Писать здесь было равносильно подвигу, ибо все это было рискованно и вызывало подозрение у лагерного начальства.

В последующие годы они встречались лично. Пастернак помог Шаламову завести знакомства в литературной среде, между ними завязалась переписка: Шаламов продолжал присылать Пастернаку свои поэтические опыты, а тот  показал «Доктора Живаго».

Из девятнадцати лет, проведенных на Севере, Шаламов «4 года не держал в руках книги, газеты», ибо условия жизни на Колыме исключали вовсе возможность писать и хранить рассказы и стихи. Лагерь для Шаламова — отрицательный опыт для человека. Это убеждение он пронес через себя.

В 1956-м его реабилитируют за отсутствием состава преступления и дают право возвратиться в Москву.

Демонстративно отказываясь от художественности, Шаламов создаёт лучшую художественную прозу о ГУЛАГе — безжалостное и талантливое свидетельство об обстоятельствах, в которых человек перестаёт быть человеком.

Шаламов создал эпос Колымы. Как певец, повествователь, рассказчик этого эпоса он бесстрастен: он все видел, все пережил, все перечувствовал… Он не питает никаких иллюзий по поводу того, что он видел: «Лагерь — отрицательная школа жизни целиком и полностью. Ничего полезного, нужного никто оттуда не вынесет, ни сам заключенный, ни его начальник, ни его охрана, ни невольные свидетели — инженеры, геологи, врачи, — ни начальники, ни подчиненные. Каждая минута лагерной жизни — отравленная минута. Там много такого, чего человек не должен знать, не должен видеть, а если видел — лучше ему умереть».

В своих рассказах Шаламов показывает утрату индивидуальных черт у человека, находящегося за решеткой. Вот почему, несмотря на разные действующие лица своих рассказов, все они: как будто, на одно лицо, и это лицо трагическое. Да, его герои живо и выпукло написаны: однако, закрыв глаза, вы вряд ли опишете хоть одного… Миллионы колымских мертвецов будет смотреть на Вас. Человек становится простой марионеткой, послушным материалом в руках природы-матушки, в нем пробуждаются и занимают главенствующее место животные инстинкты. Жизнь упрощается, а точнее сводится к одному — естественному желанию выжить. Поэтому-то у Шаламова литературная форма упрощается вместе с жизнью. Поэтому то и нет финалов с моралями в этой «проигранной битве за действительное обновление жизни», нет ни героев, ни героики, следовательно, и учить нечему. Жизнь просто длится.

«В моих рассказах нет сюжета, нет так называемых характеров. На чём они держатся? На информации о редко наблюдаемом состоянии души…» — писал Шаламов. Он выжил случайно и говорит из братской могилы от имени всех погибших, описывает не биографию конкретного человека, а коллективную память, хотя и использует при этом реальные воспоминания.

Шаламов показал нам запредельную жизнь, по ту сторону добра и зла, и только так ее можно было показать — без излишних эмоций, без психологических изысков, потому что любое лишнее слово кажется кощунством. Сурово, лаконично, точно. В лаконизме этом лежит спрессованный до предела гнев и боль автора.

Разумеется, его рассказы — ценнейшее свидетельство очевидца, летопись колымских лагерей, но не только. Шаламов не документалист, а творец своего художественного мира. Не случайно он так много размышлял и писал о таинстве творчества. Ему было важно не только «что», но прежде всего — «как». Эстетическое измерение его текстов нам еще предстоит осмыслить.

«Колымские рассказы» в нашей стране впервые увидели свет лишь спустя пять лет после смерти автора, в 1987 году.

Варлам Тихонович не был диссидентом. Выступал против публикаций своих рассказов за рубежом, считая, что их могут превратить в орудие «холодной войны». Будучи антисталинистом — оставался советским человеком, верил в социализм и «ленинские нормы» (он ведь и первый срок получил за тиражирование в подпольной типографии «завещания Ленина»). Резко разошелся с Солженицыным…

Лесняк, исследователь творчества писателя, отмечал: «Шаламов был человеком страстным, погруженным в себя. Перед ним была Цель. Он шел к ней, не размениваясь на мелочи, жертвуя стоящими на пути, отбрасывая все, что не служило или мешало достижению этой цели. Он не был отягощен ни излишней сентиментальностью, ни деликатностью. Он был живым человеком, очень сложным, противоречивым, меняющимся во времени, как все живое. Менялись его суждения, его принципы, менялись оценки, менялись и привязанности, если таковые были. Бесполезных знакомств Варлам не поддерживал, в дружбу, рожденную в беде, не верил».

«Варлам Тихонович закончил жизнь в одиночестве в доме призрения, оттолкнув от себя друзей и близких».

В конце 70-х писатель начал резко терять слух, зрение, способность к координации движений. В 1979 году Шаламова направили в пансионат для престарелых и инвалидов. Спустя два года он перенес инсульт. В 1982 году Шаламов был обследован, в результате чего переведён в интернат для психохроников. Однако во время транспортировки автор «Колымских рассказов» простудился, заболел пневмонией.

Умер Шаламов Варлам Тихонович 17 января 1982 года. Похоронен на Кунцевском кладбище. На могиле писателя позже установили памятник скульптора Федота Сучкова.

 В Вологде в доме, где родился и вырос писатель, открыт мемориальный музей Варлама Шаламова.

По мотивам «Колымских рассказов» режиссёр Владимир Фатьянов снял четырёхсерийный фильм «Последний бой майора Пугачёва», а в 2007 году вышел двенадцатисерийный телесериал «Завещание Ленина», снятый Николаем Досталем по сценарию Юрия Арабова. Шаламову посвящено и несколько документальных фильмов: например, «Острова. Варлам Шаламов» Светланы Быченко (2006) и «Варлам Шаламов. Опыт юноши» (2014) пермского режиссёра Павла Печёнкина. Сейчас снимается ещё один фильм, на этот раз о последних днях писателя, — «Сентенция» режиссёра Дмитрия Рудакова, где Шаламова сыграет Пётр Мамонов.

Надо продолжать читать и перечитывать книги В. Шаламова. Это он воздвиг памятник на безвестной могиле миллионов ни в чем не повинных людей.

ЦИТАТЫ ШАЛАМОВА

“…Писатели – судьи времени, а не подручные”

“Собственная кровь, собственная судьба – вот требование сегодняшней литературы”

“Я летописец собственной души, не более”

“Формула моей жизни – сопротивление злу!”

“Я – там, где боль, я – там, где стон”

СПАСИБО ЗА ВНИМАНИЕ!

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  58. If you can do something, then you need to do it for the good of others.
    Life is too short to surround yourself with toxic people.
    Finally, Actions speak louder than words is another classic example.
    It originated from Lady Mary Montgomerie Currie’s poem Tout vient a qui sait attendre.
    Pick an aphorism that relates to your message and use it to stay focused on your overarching theme.
    Let’s get started.
    Take this proverb, for example.
    Don’t count on things that haven’t happened yet because something unexpected could occur.
    Another example comes from Spider-Man, where Uncle Ben turns to Peter Parker and says, With great power comes great responsibility.
    Washington also said, It is better to offer no excuse than a bad one.
    Interestingly enough, this saying was initially intended as a compliment.
    Now you might be asking.
    And get this.
    The term aphorism originates from late Latin aphorismus and Greek aphorismos.
    Do you believe that a penny saved is a penny earned.
    Better safe than sorry is a piece of wisdom from Samuel Lover’s book, Rory O’More.

  59. The part in Star Wars where Yoda says, There is do, or do not.
    Yup, you guessed it.
    Finally, Actions speak louder than words is another classic example.
    Not good.
    As they say, Nothing ventured, nothing gained.
    Aphorisms are so common that we hardly think twice about them.
    Now that we’ve covered the aphorism definition, are you ready for more examples.
    It reminds us to take precautionary measures, so we don’t end up with bad results.
    George Washington is known for his wise sayings.
    Sandys said, Honestie the best policie, which in modern English is…
    Oftentimes, it makes sense to delegate tasks.
    Now you might be asking.
    It’s time.
    Truthfully, there aren’t huge differences between the three.
    But, the aphorism is short and sweet.
    You get up and keep trying.

  60. And since they’re universal truths about life, they help persuade your reader to accept your message.
    It originally read, Count not they chickens that unhatched be…
    It’s one of my favorite aphorisms because it’s simple but yet powerful.
    Like George Washington, Sandys believed that telling the truth is always the way to go.
    Shifting gears a little, let’s talk about one of the world’s greatest aphorists – Benjamin Franklin.
    Now you might be asking.
    You’re prepared to use these handy little sayings to make your prose more relatable.
    The term aphorism originates from late Latin aphorismus and Greek aphorismos.
    But, the aphorism is short and sweet.
    What does it mean.
    What am I referring to.
    Sandys said, Honestie the best policie, which in modern English is…
    The complete quote was, A Jack of all trades and master of none, but oftentimes better than a master of one.
    But these days.
    Their direct, witty approach is what makes these self-evident truths powerful.
    Aphorisms are so common that we hardly think twice about them.

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