25 сентября 1970г. — 50 лет назад умер Эрих Мария Ремарк, немецкий писатель

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Эрих Мария Ремарк (нем. Erich Maria Remarque) — пожалуй, самый известный и читаемый немецкий писатель 20 века — родился 22 июня 1898 года в немецком городе Оснабрюк, в рабочей католической семье. Его имя при рождении — Эрих Пауль Ремарк.

В 1916 году Ремарка призвали в армию, и он был направлен на Западный фронт в годы Первой мировой войны. В одном из сражений летом 1917 года Эрих Мария Ремарк получил ранения в ногу, руку и шею и до конца войны пребывал в военном госпитале.

С 1919 года он начал свою трудовую деятельность, перепробовав много профессий — работал учителем, продавцом, органистом… В 1921 году Ремарк стал редактором в журнале Echo Continental, тогда же и появился его псевдоним — Эрих Мария Ремарк (в честь матери Марии).

В октябре 1925 года он взял в жены бывшую танцовщицу Ильзу Ютту Замбона. Именно с супруги Ремарк писал своих героинь в некоторых романах, в том числе Патрицию Хольман в известном романе «Три товарища». Вместе они прожили 4 года, после чего их брак распался.

Однако, для того чтобы ей помочь покинуть Германию в 1938 году (после прихода к власти нацистов) Ремарк еще раз на ней женился. Официально их брак был расторгнут только в 1957 году, при этом Эрих Мария до конца своих дней выплачивал бывшей жене денежную помощь и после смерти завещал ей 50 тысяч долларов.

В 1920-х годах вышло несколько произведений писателя, в том числе — роман «Станция на горизонте» и наиболее известное из его произведений «На западном фронте без перемен».

В 1933 году нацисты сожгли все произведения Эриха Марии Ремарка, запретив читать его книги, ссылаясь, якобы, на то, что он имеет еврейское происхождение и его настоящая фамилия – Крамер («Ремарк», написанное наоборот). Гонения заставили Эриха эмигрировать в США (где он в 1947 году получил гражданство).

В 1937 году у него был бурный и стремительный роман со знаменитой актрисой Марлен Дитрих, однако эти отношения принесли больше мучений, чем счастья. Считается, что прообразом героини романа «Триумфальная арка» (1945) является именно Марлен Дитрих.

В 1951 году Ремарк познакомился с актрисой Полетт Годар, которая и помогла ему прийти в себя после связи с Дитрих, а в 1958 году они поженились и переехали жить в Швейцарию. Там писатель продолжил заниматься своим творчеством до конца жизни рядом с любимой женой.

Среди его произведений этого периода — такие известные романы как: «Жизнь взаймы», «Искра жизни», «Время жить и время умирать», «Ночь в Лиссабоне».

Эрих Мария Ремарк скончался 25 сентября 1970 года в Локарно (Швейцария).

Источник опубликования: https://www.calend.ru/persons/3064/
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